Want to learn to master nen?
Well...first you have to learn ten. Ten is when you surround your body with your energy that originates from your shoko. Ten means "point" and in the process of ten, you concentrate your energy and chose your objective.
Then, you learn zetsu. Zetsu allows you to close your shoko to block your energy from escaping from your shoko entirely. Zetsu means "lanuguage" and is when the thought (ten) becomes a word.
Next step is ren. Ren is when you open your shoko to the maximum and allow the greatest amount of energy to radiate through. Ren is the finishing of the process that had just been turned from thought (ten) to word (ren).
The last step is hatsu, which is your special technique. Hatsu means "projection", which changes the ten, zetsu and ren into action.
Gyo is a special technique where you concentrate your energy on your eyes so you can see the hidden energies of another person.
After learning these, then you move on to more advanced skills, such as:
Shu is a secret ten technique where you put your aura on an object and strengthen it.
In is when you hide your aura (sort of like the opposite of gyou and an enhancement of zetsu).
Kou is when you concentrate ten, zetsu, and ren on a part of your body. For instance, you can concentrate 70% on your right fist when you attack someone, and leave 30% aura on your left fist for defense. However, if the other person attacks your left fist with their 70% enhanced hand, you will receive 40% damage on your left fist. Thus is the use of kou.
Ken is when ten and ren are used together.
En is when you expand your aura(like enhanced ten), and after much practice you can reach up to a 50 or more meters. In this 50 or more meter radius, you can feel the presence of any other person.
There are six nen types as follows:
Reinforcement(a.k.a Strengthen, or Kyouka) is when your nen is put around a certain area of your body to strengthen its attacks (ex: your fist)
Emission(a.k.a Release, or Houshutsu) is when you emit your energy out.
Manipulation(a.k.a Control, or Sousa) is when you use your energy to control an object. They can only fight with the object that they control.
Transformation(a.k.a Henka) is when your aura can be changed into many different shapes.
Materialization(a.k.a gugenka) is when your energy materializes into an object. The materialized object cannot stay too far away from the user.
Specialization(a.k.a tokushitsu) is ...well...in one word---special! (obviously...^.^;;) Specialization nen users use skills that don't fit into any of the other categories.
There are also several ways to test what nen type you are. Here is the classical way: Get a glass of water and a leaf. Put the leaf in the water, then release your nen around the glass of water (once you have mastered nen's basic parts, then attempt this...):
The water level rises: This indicates you have
reinforcement nen type.
The water changes color, from transparent to
something else: This shows you are reinforcement.
The water changes its chemical properties (changes
taste, does burning count too<--learned this in science class...): This
shows you have transformation nen type.
The water changes its form, like when other
substances appear: This indicates you have materialization nen type.
The leaf floats in the water: This means you have
manipulation nen type.
Something not included in the above list occurs,
showing that you are specialization.
Or...if you don't have the leaf and a glass of water available (exactly where on Earth are you? Or are you on Mars?) Then you can try by Hisoka's standards: determining by personality.
If you are...
naive and innocent...reinforcement
impulsive and rash...emission
capricious and lie a lot...transformation
obstinate and domineering...manipulation
sensitive and highly strung...materialization
none of the above, charismatic...specialization
Each person can only use one type of nen up to 100% accuracy and strength, unless you are specialization, that is. If, for instance, you are of materialization nen type (this was the example given to Kurapika), and you are capable of mastering materialization up to 100%, you can only master up to 80% in transformation, 60% in both reinforcment and manipulation, 40% emission and 0% specialization. You can never learn perfectly a different nen.
Also, you have a better chance of learning the nen types closer to yours on the hexagon, ex: if you are transformation, you have better chances at learning materialization(next to it) than manipulation (across from it).
Specialization is at zero because you cannot learn specialization unlike you can the others. It simply comes with you from the beginnning, depending on where you were born and how you were raised. However, manipulation and materialization users have the highest chance to acquire specialization, thus, it is next to them on the chart.